Tuesday, November 26, 2019
Biography of Calvin Coolidge, the 13th US President
Biography of Calvin Coolidge, the 13th US President Calvin Coolidge was the 30th President of the United States. He is often described as unusually quiet, though he was known for his dry sense of humor. Coolidge was a small-government Republican who was popular among conservative middle-class voters. Calvin Coolidges Childhood and Education Coolidge was born on July 4, 1872, in Plymouth, Vermont. His father was a storekeeper and local public official. Coolidge attended a local school before enrolling in 1886 at the Black River Academy in Ludlow, Vermont. He studied at Amherst College from 1891-95. He then studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1897. Family Ties Coolidge was born to John Calvin Coolidge, a farmer and storekeeper, and Victoria Josephine Moor. His fatherÃ was a justice of the peace and actually deliveredÃ the oath of office to his son when he won the presidency. His mother died when Coolidge was 12. He had one sister namedÃ Abigail Gratia Coolidge. Sadly, she died at age 15. On October 5, 1905, Coolidge marriedÃ Grace Anna Goodhue. She was well educated and ended up getting a degree from the Clarke School for the Deaf in Massachusetts where she taught elementary aged children until her marriage. Together she and Coolidge had two sons:Ã John Coolidge and Calvin Coolidge, Jr. Calvin Coolidges Career Before the Presidency Coolidge practiced law and became an active Republican in Massachusetts. He began his political career on the Northampton City Council (1899-1900). From 1907-08, he was a member of the Massachusetts General Court. He then became Mayor of Northampton in 1910. In 1912, he was elected to be a Massachusetts State Senator. From 1916-18, he was the Lieutenant Governor of Massachusetts and, in 1919, he won the Governors seat. He then ran with Warren Harding to become Vice President in 1921. Becoming the President Coolidge succeeded to the presidency on August 3, 1923, when Harding died from a heart attack. In 1924, Coolidge was nominated to run for president by the Republicans with Charles Dawes as his running mate. Coolidge ran against Democrat John Davis and Progressive Robert M. LaFollette. In the end, Coolidge won with 54% of the popular vote and 382 out of 531 electoral votes. Events and Accomplishments of Calvin CoolidgeÃ¢â¬â¢s Presidency Coolidge governed during a relative calm and peaceful period between the two world wars. Nevertheless, his conservative beliefs helped make significant changes to immigration laws and taxes. The Immigration Act of 1924 reduced the number of immigrants allowed into the U.S. so that only 150,000 total individuals were allowed in each year. The law favored immigrants from Northern Europe over Southern Europeans and Jews; Japanese immigrants were not allowed in at all.In 1924 and 1926, taxes were cut that had been imposed duringÃ World War I. The money that individuals were able to keep and spend helped contribute to the speculation that eventually would lead toÃ the fall of the stock marketÃ and contribute to theÃ Great Depression.Ã¢â¬â¹In 1924, the Veterans Bonus passed through Congress despite Coolidges veto. It provided veterans with insurance redeemable in twenty years.In 1927-28, Congress tried to pass farm relief bills allowing the government to buy crops to support farm prices. Coolidge vetoed this bill twice, believing that government had no place in setting price floors and ceilings.In 1928, the Kellogg-Briand Pact was created among fifteen countries who agreed that war was not a viable method for settling international disputes. It was created by Secretary of State Frank Kellogg and French Foreign Minister Aristide Briand. Post-Presidential Period Coolidge chose not to run for a second term in office. He retired to Northampton, Massachusetts and wrote his autobiography; he died on January 5, 1933, of a coronary thrombosis. Historical Significance Coolidge was president during the interim period between the two world wars. During this time, the economic situation in America seemed to be one of prosperity. However, the foundation was being laid for what would become the Great Depression. The era was also one of increased isolationism after the close of World War I.